Water is inevitable for living. A human being or any living things need water to maintain the body temperature. It is necessary to fulfil the basic need for liquid and to provide natural minerals. It has a vital role in daily activities too. It acts as a solvent for every cleaning reagent. It is crucial for bathing and washing. Water gets polluted after its use and needs proper treatment to avoid the danger of contamination. Some industries function for water treatment and water purification.
It is necessary to process wastewater because it is the only way to resist water pollution. Mother of Nature could not contain water pollution or any other pollution. Everything in it is connected and coexisted. Wastewater from polluted rivers or other water bodies, from the household, or the chemically contaminated water from factories is refined. Gems or viruses in the water will be killed, and also, the natural smell will be regained. On the other hand, water purification is refining the natural water, which might have some odd smell and many microorganisms inside it. Both these techniques are becoming vital as irresponsible human behaviour is killing the natural water resources on Earth.
Through biological processes, water itself can remove pollutants. Contaminants are removed when water is settled on the ground. This natural cleansing has a limit and not strong enough to refine drinking water. It is because of the industrial and agricultural wastes entered into the surface of the Earth. So to cope with this situation, treating wastewater became a must, and the discharge of polluted water became legal. Discharge of wastewater without proper treatment is illegal.
Waste Water Treatment Process
This procedure is divided into three treatment stages to assure quality. In the first stage, wastewater is filtered using large screens which remove solid materials such as plastic bottles and metals. The wastewater undergoes the second stage from the primary sedimentation tank as the sludge is pumped away to another tank for further treatments.
The secondary stage is known as the activated sludge technique. In this biological process, naturally occurring bacteria are used to break down the solids. Water will be kept to settle down, and it will be aerated with tanks to provide oxygen. Oxygen promotes the growth of bacteria in the wastewater, which could deplete organic pollutants. The refined wastewater goes through the tertiary treatment in which chlorine is used to remove the harmful pathogens. It is the final stage.
Sometimes stages are repeated twice or three to produce fresh water.
Benefits of Waste water Treatment
There are different benefits of treating wastewater other than the reuse of water.
1) Waste management
Treatment of wastewater controls the number of pollutants released into the environment. The reduction of health risks related to environmental pollution is another benefit. Government can shorten the amount of money on environmental rehabilitation projects.
2) production of energy
The sludge collected in the procedure contains biodegradable substances. It could be treated with anaerobic microorganisms to produce methane, which can be used to generate electricity. It helps to reduce the use of renewable energy sources and also lessens the expenditure on energy production.
3) production of fertilizers
Biodegradable materials are dried and processed into natural fertilizer. It could be used for agricultural purposes. It would control the use of chemicals as fertilizers that pollute the ecosystem.