Various environmental forces impact your waterproofing decisions. Whether these include ground moisture-related conditions such as capillary action, the type of soil in your location, or additional construction nearby, the effects can affect the materials you choose for your building’s foundation and slab.
Additionally, crack-bridging is critical because of the structural movement that naturally occurs in structures. Liquid membranes are designed to withstand cracking and fatigue cycles while preventing water infiltration.
Polyurethane Liquid Membrane Waterproofing
As one of the most popular waterproofing NJ methods, liquid membrane waterproofing is easy to apply and provides reliable protection for areas that need it. This method is used for waterproofing terraces, balconies, roofs, and other exposed concrete surfaces. It is also helpful in protecting against water ingress in buildings and structures. Unlike other waterproofing methods, polyurethane liquid membrane does not need seams or joints to work effectively, so it can be applied in a single layer to any surface needing protection.
The elastomeric nature of a polyurethane liquid membrane makes it highly durable. Its strength means it can withstand point loads that would break other liquid waterproofing membranes. For example, it can withstand a load of up to 3,000 psi without showing any sign of damage or penetration. Its elasticity allows it to expand and contract with the surface it covers, making it an ideal solution for roofs.
In addition, a polyurethane liquid membrane has a high coefficient of stretching. This characteristic allows it to bridge cracks that may appear in the concrete it is applying. This is important because a crack in the substrate can create leaking points, which could otherwise be difficult to seal with traditional waterproofing materials. This property of a polyurethane membrane also helps it resist the effects of shrinkage in a building or structure.
Cementitious waterproofing provides a strong moisture barrier for concrete walls and floors. It’s easy to apply and typically consists of a mixture that can be purchased in local hardware stores. It’s also very affordable and has high-quality abrasion and corrosion resistance. This makes it an excellent choice for areas with a lot of wear and tear, such as water tanks, reservoirs, clear wells, or parking basements.
The cementitious waterproofing product can be brushed, troweled, or sprayed onto surfaces, which makes it easy for any masonry or cement finishing crew to use. It’s also resistant to negative-side hydrostatic pressure, which makes it ideal for waterproofing new foundations or retaining wall structures from the inside.
These systems are usually designed as a two-component blend, with prebagged powder and liquid components mixed at the construction site before application. The powder component comprises a hydraulic binder (usually Portland cement), while the liquid component consists of a polymer modifier and various powder additives.
These two-component systems are a popular alternative to conventional Portland cement-based coatings. They have excellent affinity to concrete and masonry substrates, providing high bonding strength. At the same time, the acrylic or styrene acrylic latex binder contributes to the flexible properties that these systems are known for. This makes them the ideal option for behind-tile and over-masonry patching and for above- and below-grade applications.
Crystalline Waterproofing is a unique concrete admixture incorporated into the structure instead of membranes or coatings. When poured into concrete during construction, it penetrates deeply into the pores and capillaries to form a network of insoluble crystals that seal the passage against water. As it cures, it strengthens the concrete and increases its durability. It is impervious to physical damage and deterioration and cannot be punctured or cracked.
When concrete treated with crystalline admixtures comes into contact with moisture, the dormant chemicals within the crystals are activated. This triggers a self-healing process that blocks the inevitable minor cracks in any concrete structure.
The crystalline waterproofing will also plug the concrete’s natural pores and capillaries, protecting it from the permeability that can lead to structural problems. This makes crystalline waterproofing an ideal solution for basements and tunnels.
Integral crystalline waterproofing is less labor-intensive than membrane waterproofing, as it is added to the concrete mix at the batch plant. This decreases construction costs and allows the waterproofing to be incorporated into the concrete during placement, speeding up the project schedule.
The crystalline technology is an effective waterproofing method for both new and existing structures, as it can be applied to both the positive and negative sides of a concrete structure. However, it is best used in structures that are not subject to recurring movement, as the chemical reactions in the crystals are sensitive to changing water levels and may be disrupted.
Needle-Punched Geosynthetic Lining
Needle-punched nonwoven fabrics are made from a wide range of fibers, which have been mechanically bonded together through fiber entanglement and friction following penetration by fine needle barbs. These characteristics influence the permeability properties of these fabrics. A key factor is the web structure, which can be affected by the laying technique used during production. For example, needle-punched woven geotextiles have structural architectures that depend on the laying method (Russel, 2007) and the initial fiber structures in the carded webs.
Needled-punched geotextiles can be produced from short fibers with high tensile strength by carding netting needle punching (Needle woven or Needle nonwoven). They have good flexibility, acid and alkali, corrosion resistance, aging resistance, high puncture strength and stability, low permeability, and excellent filter and isolation performance. These properties make them suitable for civil engineering projects such as road, railway, and airport constructions; side slope protection treatment and embankment reinforcements; greening isolation belts and drainage systems.
This paper presents results from an extensive database on internal and interface shear strengths of Needle-punched Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs). Essential concepts of shear stress-displacement behavior and shear strength interpretation are discussed. The paper also provides recommendations for selecting design failure envelopes for stability analyses and checklists to assist users in specifying shear testing programs for GCLs. Results show that the hydration state of sodium bentonite, its degree of aggregation, and pore water pressures strongly affect the shear behavior of GCLs.